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Command and Control studies

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R.26.R THE IMPLICATION OF A SATELLITE BROADCAST CAPABILITY TO SUPPORT MULTINATIONAL FORCES

This study will investigate the opportunities and challenges that satellite broadcast capabilities may offer to forces in multinational operations, with particular emphasis on information dissemination.

A Satellite Broadcast System is a solution matched to the asymmetric requirement, where a high data rate “one-to-many” link is supplemented by a large number of low data rate point to point return links. The use of a managed, common broadcast channel, where users are able to select and extract data specific to them, would increase greatly the efficiency of the space resource whilst potentially extending the communications capability to a wider user community.

The principle user of this capability will be the intelligence community for the distribution of common data to multiple sites, themselves dispersed over a large area. There may be other concepts to develop the capability beyond that of the intelligence community, particularly the operational necessity of a global capability of “Situational Awareness”, that asks for a secure dissemination of the “Common Operational Picture”, and for the logistics community to assist in stores and asset management.

While not considered mission essential for the EUBG concept, Finabel nations should collectively consider the development of a common SBS to support multinational forces. This may include commercial or international agreements.

R.25.R A guide to the development and implementation of Command and Control procedures and practises

The deployment of an EUBG has a number of benefits; principally, at the political level, it demonstrates multinational resolve to engage in emerging problems.  It also brings the complications associated with multinationality.  For the benefits of such a deployment to be realised, the potential difficulties must be identified and addressed early.  This paper does not set out the necessary C2 procedures required by an EUBG, rather it exposes the principle methods to developing and implementing those procedures.

R.14.R - IMPACT OF THE COEXISTENCE OF COTS PRODUCTS AND SPECIFIC MILITARY PRODUCTS IN THE CCIS

IMPACT OF THE COEXISTENCE OF COTS PRODUCTS AND SPECIFIC MILITARY PRODUCTS IN THE CCIS

Study R.14.R was entitled “Impact of the Coexistence of COTS Products and Specific Military Products in the CCIS” and was promulgated in June 2000.  As part of an ongoing process of reviewing previous studies, the Working Group reviewed this study to establish whether it remained relevant, needed some corrections since it as written or had been so overtaken by events that it no longer held any value

R.04.R - MAINTENANCE OF OPERATIONAL SOFTWARE

The principle projects for interoperability at the time of this review (2009) are TACOM for the Communication Systems and the Multinational Interoperability Programme (MIP) for the Information Systems.  In addition interfacing at a lower level is being developed by NATO through a new project; Joint Dismounted Soldier Systems Data Model (JDSSDM) (It is accepted that this situation could change in the years ahead but represents the current situation.)

R.24.R - INFORMATION MANAGEMENT IN A DIGITIZED BATTLE SPACE

This study proposes to provide guidance for information management policy. It represents the first reference to Finabel nations’ doctrine in order to develop IM in their respective deployed HQs. It contributes to a better and common understanding of what is the management of information.

Consequently, it proposes key definitions, principles and terminology as well some key elements for the implementation of information management in a multinational and digitized HQ in operation. Implementation of IM is presented in terms of responsibilities and possible organization.

This study covers the management of all information in a HQ, such as the ISTAR concept.

It also identifies the main SOPs and SOIs to be written for an efficiency management of information in a deployed HQ.

R.23.R - ENHANCING THE C2 OF MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS THROUGH THE USE OF REACH BACK CAPABILITIES

This study concentrates primarily on the conceptual aspects of reach back and its support to Command and Control of multinational operations. The study provides guidance to nations intending to create a reach back capability, and to commanders in the use of reach back in a multinational operation. It describes some national and multinational experiences with reach back or related concepts, the possible benefits of reach back, the risks and challenges related to it and several issues relevant for the implementation of reach back. These are described along the following aspects: organisational, procedural, human factors and information exchange.

R.22.R - NETWORK ENABLED CAPABILITY CHALLENGES

NETWORK ENABLED CAPABILITY CHALLENGES AND CONSEQUENCES FOR C2 IN JOINT AND COMBINED OPERATIONS

The study referes to the different national points of view on NEC before focussing on the comprehensive and overarching nature of NEC. The added-value chain and various interoperability areas are described. Within the main body the influence of NEC on multinational and national operations is discussed in depth and the advantages/ disadvantages, risks, challenges and opportunities of NEC are examined

C.35.R - COMMAND AND CONTROL (C2) IN THE FIELD OF MULTINATIONAL LOGISTICS

COMMAND AND CONTROL (C2) IN THE FIELD OF MULTINATIONAL LOGISTICS : ANALYSIS OF MULTINATIONAL COMMANDER’S AUTHORITY WITH RESPECT TO NATIONAL AND MULTINATIONAL LOGISTIC FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES.
There is a trend towards MN operations which, from a logistics perspective, can help to optimise the use of limited national resources and maximise the logistic capability available to the force as a whole. Reliance on add-hoc solutions is unlikely to deliver the effectiveness and efficiency sought and this suggests a need to develop suitable cooperative systems; specifically Logistic C2. Nations bear ultimate responsibility for ensuring appropriate provision of logistic support to their forces but duplication of logistic functions should however be avoided and economies of scale realised at every opportunity. Fundamentally, in a MN operational context, logistic cooperation is dependant upon having appropriate and effective logistic C2 in place.

R.21.R - NAVIGATION WARFARE (NAVWAR) IN FUTURE MULTINATIONAL JOINT OPERATIONS

GNSS is becoming one of the crucial Information and Space Based Technologies (ISBT) used by Finabel military forces. It provides benefits for land-based military operations in terms of self-location accuracy, navigation and target location. In addition, sophisticated communications and C2 systems rely on GPS signals to provide a precise time reference. It allows the definition of a common position grid for joint operations and improves battlefield management. Emerging digitized environments and network centric architectures make the availability of PNT information critical for a rapid and clear Common Operational Picture (COP) necessary to develop Situational Awareness (SA).

Although important, GNSS is a vulnerable element of our electronic infrastructure. Problems can occur due to interference of the signals, such as signal blocking, attenuation, unintentional interference, deliberate jamming and spoofing. The GNSS receivers are an attractive target for electronic jamming and the technology to attack our systems is available to a range of potential adversaries and constitutes a realistic threat. These aspects need careful consideration as future military operations will increasingly rely on the information provided by GNSS.

It is therefore important that Finabel Nations develop NAVWAR capability including the training and procedural aspects of their use.

R.20.R - FACILITATION OF COMMAND AND CONTROL OF MULTINATIONAL FORCES

Lessons learned from past multinational operations have shown shortfalls in command and control. Based on principles drawn from study T.26.R, the study proposes solutions and recommendations to facilitate the command and control of multinational forces provided that each solution must be adapted to the very operation. Challenges and opportunities of multinational C2 are also addressed
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