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Urban Operations studies

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L.23.R - ISTAR SUPPORT TO OPERATION IN URBAN AREAS

The underlying theme of this study is that in the urban environment many more factors have their influence on the mission than in open terrain. These flow from the complexity of the civil society and the infrastructure which makes up the urban environment. The study suggests how to approach the complex urban environment regarding the Intelligence Preparation of the Battlespace (IPB). It describes the intelligence cycle from a point of view of urban operations. The possibilities and limitations of ISTAR operations in urban environment are analysed.

A.20.R - MECHANISED UNITS COMBAT IN URBAN AREA.

Mechanised units have advantages in this combat framework (armour, mobility, fire power and precision etc.), especially if the adversary is weak in anti-armour capability.
Each city has its own particular characteristics. The various threats (ambushes, population...) and vulnerabilities (difficulties of mutual support, reduced field of vision, etc) will always have to be taken into account in deciding upon the best form of organisation.
In violence control operations, intelligence, albeit decentralised, will play an important role during both planning and operational stages. In the reconstruction phase, intelligence is the key military capability.
International law and LOAC will be critical and proper constraints due to the presence of a civilian population, which may well prove to be an additional factor when operating in this type of environment.
ROE's will need to be thorough and detailed in their conceptualisation and that all soldiers will be obliged to observe them at all times. They should, however, be sufficiently clear and simple to permit swift and decisive implementation by the most junior soldier.


C.32.R - LOGISTICS IN SUPPORT OF A FINABEL PEACE SUPPORT OPERATION IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT

Action in a built-up environment renders support execution more complicated. Fractioning, partitioning and dispersion of units lead to a greater decentralization of logistic assets. In this perspective, modularity and fractioning of logistic assets must be looked for. An adequate balance between forward lightening and units autonomy must be found. Needs pertaining to terrain organization and projection requires to consent significant efforts. Logistic units must have protected vehicles and be equipped with communication assets. Roughness of engagement conditions and significant loss likeliness leads to a requirement for medical support in contact. Push mode should be preferred to pull mode. Complementarity and interoperability of national logistics is to be sought for, especially in the fields of medical support, transports, equipment salvaging, POL support but also as far as procedures are concerned. Taking into account population is unavoidable and will notably require cooperation with the NGOs.

A.13.R - EMPLOYMENT OF LAND FORCES IN BUILT-UP AREAS IN THE CONTEXT OF PEACE SUPPORT OPERATIONS

The aim of this is to define the procedures of use of FINABEL land forces in built-up areas for carrying out peace support operations.