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Force Engagement studies

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F.30.R - OPTIMISING THE METHODS OF AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT

OPTIMISING THE METHODS OF AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT (ASM) FOR THE LAND COMPONENT COMMANDER (LCC)

The aim of this publication is to assess how current procedures could be amended to allow more flexible use of the airspace above the Land Component in order that the effectiveness of airspace users (e.g. Ground Based Air Defence (GBAD), Artillery, manned/unmanned aerial vehicles) can be maximised, while minimising the risk to friendly forces.

A.14.R - INTEGRATION OF FINABEL COUNTRIES’ ISTAR CAPABILITIES

THE INTEGRATION OF FINABEL COUNTRIES’ ISTAR CAPABILITIES IN THE CONTEXT OF MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS
The aim of the study is to study the need for and the conditions of increased integration of national ISTAR capabilities within a multinational and combined joint framework; propose recommendations on the integration of their ISTAR capabilities (resources, structures and concepts) to the FINABEL countries

F.27.R - THE EMPLOYMENT OF FIRE SUPPORT IN URBAN AREAS

Urban areas are categorised as complex terrain, which imposes specific challenges to all forces in executing their combat missions. This is also the case for fire support. The employment of indirect fire means in support of MOUT poses additional challenges to their use in operations unconstrained by complex terrain

A.21.R - FUTURE SOLDIER (SOLDIER MODERNISATION)

TACTICAL (DOCTRINE RELATED) CONSEQUENCES OF THE FUTURE SOLDIER (SOLDIER MODERNISATION) PROGRAMME futuresoldier
Instability, unpredictability and diversity will be the characteristics of the future security situation. In contrast to the smaller risk of large scale armed conflicts, FINABEL countries now face a greater likelihood of small scale, national or regional conflicts. So each FINABEL country set up different programs in order to implement the future soldiers capability.
These programs share common views on future scenarios, battlefield and same basis on future tasks. They are different on the ground of material, procurement timeline and budgets. This Study analyzes different national programs and studies and figures out the tactical consequences that such programs will lead to.

F.26.R - THE ENGAGEMENT OF LOW RCS - RADAR CROSS SECTION -TARGETS

THE ENGAGEMENT OF LOW RCS -  RADAR CROSS SECTION -TARGETS (CRUISE MISSILES, STAND-OFF MISSILES AND UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES) BY THE FUTURE SURFACE-TO-AIR VSHORAD AND SHORAD SYSTEMS IN THE POST 2015 TIMEFRAME

The development of stand-off surface-to-air missiles will increasingly enable aircraft to engage their targets whilst staying out of the area of action of SHORAD and VSHORAD systems.

Besides, UAVs that are increasingly effective in carrying out their reconnaissance, target acquisition or even combat missions constitute an increasing threat.

Similarly, cruise missiles are becoming more accurate, more manoeuvrable and more difficult to detect. In the future, their numbers will increase because of production cost reductions resulting from technological advances.

In addition the threat of irregular forces using low RCS assets such as UAVs is increasing.

Surface-to-air defence assets must therefore be ready, in addition of their conventional aircraft and helicopter enemy, to engage these new threats which may be characterised by their small size, fast speed, low level flying capabilities and very low RCS.

This study identifies the main capabilities needed to deal with these threats in the post-2015 timeframe.

The study does not take account of the ballistic threat or large calibre rockets.

The main recommendations of the study are as follows :

- changes in sensors,

- changes in firing platforms,

- changes in BMC4I,

- intensification of the modular approach.

Taking all these elements into account will make it possible to counter the threat of low RCS targets 

F.28.R - THE EMPLOYMENT OF SURFACE-TO-AIR ARTILLERY IN URBAN AREAS

Aim of the study: requirements to be met by GBAD units during an employment in urban areas based on an analysis of the foreseeable threat in urban areas and the identification of the conditions to be met for detecting and engaging air warfare assets in urban areas.

After analysing the characteristics of the urban area, the threat, the mission and the required capabilities of GBAD in order to operate efficiently in urban areas, the following conclusions and recommendations are formulated.

K.9.C - Authorisation Procedures for parachuting in FINABEL countries

This Convention represents an agreement between the contracting parties, members of the FINABEL organisation, on the conditions and procedures in accordance with which the parachutists of their Armed Forces may take part in common airborne activities or operations over the territory of any FINABEL country, using parachute equipment, from aircraft, belonging to FINABEL countries

A.20.R - MECHANISED UNITS COMBAT IN URBAN AREA.

Mechanised units have advantages in this combat framework (armour, mobility, fire power and precision etc.), especially if the adversary is weak in anti-armour capability.
Each city has its own particular characteristics. The various threats (ambushes, population...) and vulnerabilities (difficulties of mutual support, reduced field of vision, etc) will always have to be taken into account in deciding upon the best form of organisation.
In violence control operations, intelligence, albeit decentralised, will play an important role during both planning and operational stages. In the reconstruction phase, intelligence is the key military capability.
International law and LOAC will be critical and proper constraints due to the presence of a civilian population, which may well prove to be an additional factor when operating in this type of environment.
ROE's will need to be thorough and detailed in their conceptualisation and that all soldiers will be obliged to observe them at all times. They should, however, be sufficiently clear and simple to permit swift and decisive implementation by the most junior soldier.


A.11.R - EMPLOYMENT OF FORCES UN HUMANITARIAN ACTIONS

The aim of the study is to :

  • describe the framework in which such a mission will be carried out;
  • define the basic principles for humanitarian action;
  • set the possible missions to be performed;
  • define the methods for preparing and performing the action.

It could be of assistance in the preparation and commitment of FINABEL forces in humanitarian missions, as part of a multinational assistance force.

A.12.R - THE EMPLOYMENT OF NON-LETHAL WEAPONS IN TASKS ASSIGNED TO FINABEL LAND FORCES

The aim of the study is to identify the various situations in which non-lethal weapons could be used by FINABEL land forces, either in isolation or in conjunction with conventional weapons.
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