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Force Engagement studies

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K.20.R - CSAR AND LIMEX IN THE CONTEXT OF AIRMOBILE OPERATIONS

The aim of this study is to list the operational and tactical procedures, as well as the equipment and personnel, required for carrying out combat search and rescue (CSAR) and limited extraction (LIMEX) in the context of airmobile operations

K.19.R - DEEP AIRMOBILE OPERATIONS

The aim of this study is to examine the employment of airmobile units in deep operations

K.18.R - THE AIRMOBILITY CONCEPT

Study K.18.R sets out to harmonise understanding, within FINABEL forces, of the way in which "airmobility" (according to the NATO definition given in AAP-6) can be used and if possible suggest the direction that this airmobility concept should take during the next 20 years

K.17.R - POSSIBLE USES AND LIMITATIONS OF HELICOPTER UNITS FOR PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS

POSSIBLE USES AND LIMITATIONS OF HELICOPTER UNITS FOR PEACEKEEPING OPERATIONS AND HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTIONS

The aim of study K.17.R is to examine the possible uses and limitations of helicopter units within national or multinational contingents used for peacekeeping operations and humanitarian interventions

 

K.16.R - POSSIBLE USES AND LIMITAIONS OF AIRMOBILE UNITS

POSSIBLE USES AND LIMITAIONS OF AIRMOBILE UNITS IN THE CONTEXT OF REACTION FORCES OPERATIONS

The aim of the report K.16.R is to study the possible uses and limitations of airmobile units in the context operations carried out by reaction forces

F.30.R - OPTIMISING THE METHODS OF AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT

OPTIMISING THE METHODS OF AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT (ASM) FOR THE LAND COMPONENT COMMANDER (LCC)

The aim of this publication is to assess how current procedures could be amended to allow more flexible use of the airspace above the Land Component in order that the effectiveness of airspace users (e.g. Ground Based Air Defence (GBAD), Artillery, manned/unmanned aerial vehicles) can be maximised, while minimising the risk to friendly forces.

F.29.R - THE ROLE OF ARTILLERY IN JOINT FIRES CO-ORDINATION

The operational context in which our Armed Forces will have to operate has changed considerably. A joint and combined approach has to be achieved resulting in a more effective engagement by our Armed Forces.

Comprehensive interoperability across the Defence Lines of Development are essential to create synergy by joint fires. Joint fire support co-ordination is one of the key elements in that process. Co-ordination cells at all levels with new dynamic fire support co-ordination procedures must be integrated into our Armed Forces.

The artillery staff have experience of co-ordinating organic fires and are capable of assuming more responsibilities in the future.

It is recommended that the artillery takes the lead in the co-ordination of joint fires and joint effects.

F.28.R - THE EMPLOYMENT OF SURFACE-TO-AIR ARTILLERY IN URBAN AREAS

Aim of the study: requirements to be met by GBAD units during an employment in urban areas based on an analysis of the foreseeable threat in urban areas and the identification of the conditions to be met for detecting and engaging air warfare assets in urban areas.

After analysing the characteristics of the urban area, the threat, the mission and the required capabilities of GBAD in order to operate efficiently in urban areas, the following conclusions and recommendations are formulated.

F.27.R - THE EMPLOYMENT OF FIRE SUPPORT IN URBAN AREAS

Urban areas are categorised as complex terrain, which imposes specific challenges to all forces in executing their combat missions. This is also the case for fire support. The employment of indirect fire means in support of MOUT poses additional challenges to their use in operations unconstrained by complex terrain

F.26.R - THE ENGAGEMENT OF LOW RCS - RADAR CROSS SECTION -TARGETS

THE ENGAGEMENT OF LOW RCS -  RADAR CROSS SECTION -TARGETS (CRUISE MISSILES, STAND-OFF MISSILES AND UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES) BY THE FUTURE SURFACE-TO-AIR VSHORAD AND SHORAD SYSTEMS IN THE POST 2015 TIMEFRAME

The development of stand-off surface-to-air missiles will increasingly enable aircraft to engage their targets whilst staying out of the area of action of SHORAD and VSHORAD systems.

Besides, UAVs that are increasingly effective in carrying out their reconnaissance, target acquisition or even combat missions constitute an increasing threat.

Similarly, cruise missiles are becoming more accurate, more manoeuvrable and more difficult to detect. In the future, their numbers will increase because of production cost reductions resulting from technological advances.

In addition the threat of irregular forces using low RCS assets such as UAVs is increasing.

Surface-to-air defence assets must therefore be ready, in addition of their conventional aircraft and helicopter enemy, to engage these new threats which may be characterised by their small size, fast speed, low level flying capabilities and very low RCS.

This study identifies the main capabilities needed to deal with these threats in the post-2015 timeframe.

The study does not take account of the ballistic threat or large calibre rockets.

The main recommendations of the study are as follows :

- changes in sensors,

- changes in firing platforms,

- changes in BMC4I,

- intensification of the modular approach.

Taking all these elements into account will make it possible to counter the threat of low RCS targets 
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