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Force Engagement studies

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F.25.R - THE ROLE OF FORWARD OBSERVERS IN FUTURE THEATRES OF OPERATIONS

The forward observer (FO) must be able to be involved in the complete range of operations. Within this framework, the forward observers' missions will take place in close, deep and rear operations. But in the future, other operations will become  the norm, violence control operations and operations in specific environments. The tasks that the forward observer must carry out in the future will be the conventional ones, with the addition of others for which he will have to be trained. In the future, the forward observer will have to have a multirole capability in order to deal with future operations. Technological developments will have an impact on all the forward observer's missions. New communications technologies will allow more centralised control of a greater number of forward observers.

F.24.R - CONSEQUENCES OF THE USE OF PRECISION MUNITIONS ON THE BATTLEFIELD

Precision munitions for surface-to-surface artillery are defined as those munitions which are able to hit a target with a specific circular error probable (CEP) whose  accuracy is greater than that achieved by conventional munitions. These munitions have internal and/or external systems for their terminal guidance to the target. By using precision munitions, the artillery will be capable to using its fire power directly against the targets located in the objective area, obtaining at least the same effects as conventional munitions with a much smaller number of rounds

F.23.R - CHANGES TO BE MADE TO THE COMMAND AND EMPLOYMENT OF THE ARTILLERY

This report describes the artillery's current and future missions and capabilities. It studies the question of whether, and possibly how the artillery employment doctrine must or could be altered to suit the changes and the acquisition of modern artillery systems, taking account of the general situation and of deciding factors such as the analysis of the threat, the range of missions and the technological changes in the acquisition assets, weapons and command systems.

The report also gives an account of any possible repercussions from the structural point of view.

In particular, the report draws conclusions with regard to the employment doctrine based on:

-           a threat from an enemy with similar capabilities,

-           a change in artillery requirements,

-           the changing technical requirements of the new artillery weapons systems,

-           the capabilities of future artillery weapons systems.

The aim of the report is also to analyse the impact of future technological changes on all the structures and attempts to show the interaction between the systems' capabilities and the employment doctrine.

F.17.R - SURVIVAL OF ARTILLERY IN COMBAT IN THE 2010 TIMEFRAME

The role of the Artillery includes 2 main tasks:

 - a specific task of aggression in depth (up to approximately 100 km), as early and as far as possible;

 - a support task for the benefit of contact arms.

The aim of this report is to analyze the survival of surface-to-surface Artillery in the 2010 timeframe, identifying the technical and tactical measures to be adopted with a view to optimizing its operational capability during combat, taking account of the roles allocated to it.

D.16.R - THE ANTI-AIRCRAFT ARTILLERY OF PROJECTION FORCES IN THE 2015 TIMEFRAME

This study studies the anti-aircraft artillery in the context of the deployment, outside the homeland of the FINABEL member countries, of a projection forces carrying out military actions in war or peace support. The projected force must have an anti-aircraft defence capable of operating during all phases of the projection operation. For anti-aircraft defence to be really effective, it is necessary that the land forces' surface-to-air defence system to be connected to the air defence C4I system. In the 2015 timeframe, it will be necessary to have interoperable command and control systems to enable an integrated global system to be set up.

D.15.R - THE AIR THREAT IN THE 2015 TIMEFRAME

This study is based on the assumption that we are dealing with air forces, which have a whole range, of modern and sophisticated air warfare assets, and air forces with limited capabilities, which often include a few sophisticated systems. For the main part, it involves fixed?wing aircraft, rotary?wing aircraft and remotely piloted vehicles, as well as other aerodynamic vehicles. Defence against tactical ballistic missiles, whilst of vital importance is not currently one of the missions carried out by most of FINABEL Land Forces

D.14.R - ALL ARMS AIR DEFENCE

ALL ARMS AIR DEFENCE IN THE CONTEXT O PRESENT AND FUTURE MISSIONS OF FINABEL LAND FORCES

The report must describe the role of AAAD in the context of current and future missions of FINABEL land forces at the level of national and collective defence within the Alliance and in overseas operations. Its aim is to develop common principles for an employment concept and, if possible, for joint acquisition/development measures

D.13.R - OPERATIONAL CONCEPT OF AN ANTI-AIRCRAFT ARTILLERY’S FUTURE C2 SYSTEM

OPERATIONAL CONCEPT OF AN ANTI-AIRCRAFT ARTILLERY’S FUTURE C2 SYSTEM (COMMAND AND CONTROL)

The aim of this study is not to carry out another detailed analysis of this subject. It is appropriate, however, given the subject under discussion, to highlight some of its main characteristics and trends in order to redefine anti-aircraft defence and its objectives.

D.12.R - AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL

AIRSPACE MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL WITHIN THE CONTEXT OF NEW OPERATIONS (INCLUDING PEACE-SUPPORT) FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF ANTI-AIRCRAFT DEFENCE

To determine the criteria which must be met by the airspace control system in future operations, including peace support operations, carried out within a multinational framework, basically from the point of view of anti-aircraft defence, taking into account, however, the need for air operations, the presence of civilian aviation and the possible participation of countries who are not members of NATO.

To determine the inadequacies of the current system and the measures to be taken (relating, amongst other things, to the equipment and systems of command and control of operations (C2)) which, in the future, could lead to increased effectiveness of anti-aircraft defence and air operations in one same area.

To determine to what extent it is possible, already or in the short-term, to meet the criteria required for a future system.

To inform the air forces of the NATO nations of the fact that a lack of airspace coordination considerably limits the use of anti-aircraft artillery and represents an actual risk for the friendly users of the airspace. 

D.11.R - INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS OF SURFACE-TO-AIR ARTILLERY

INTEROPERABILITY REQUIREMENTS OF SURFACE-TO-AIR ARTILLERY WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF MULTINATIONAL OPERATIONS

The aim of this document is to define the areas in which interoperability has to be ensured between the surface-to-air artillery units deployed in multinational operations, establish the existing possibilities which can be utilised to ensure a certain degree of interoperability and identify the measures which are to be taken/developed in the short-, medium- and long-term in the various areas to reach the required level of interoperability